Seiberg received his Ph.D. in 1982 from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, where he worked from 1985 to 1991 as senior scientist, associate professor and professor. From 1989 to 1997, he was a professor at Rutgers University in New Jersey. He joined the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study in New Jersey in 1997.
Seiberg has received many awards and honors, including a MacArthur Fellowship, the Oskar Klein Medal, the Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics of the American Physical Society and the American Institute of Physics, and the Fundamental Physics Prize. He is a member of both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences.