Dinur received her Ph.D. in computer science in 2001 from Tel Aviv University. She conducted postdoctoral research for three years, first at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, then at NEC Research Institute, and finally as a Miller Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley. She joined the Weizmann Institute in 2007.
Dinur was a plenary speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in 2010. She is the recipient of the Godel Award (2019), the PODS Test-of-Time Award and the Erdős Prize in Mathematics (2012).