Learning appropriate representations of the reward environment is challenging in the real world where there are many options, each with multiple attributes or features. Despite existence of alternative solutions for this challenge, neural mechanisms underlying emergence and adoption of value representations and learning strategies remain unknown. To address this, we measure learning and choice during a multi-dimensional probabilistic learning task in humans and trained recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to capture our experimental observations. We find that human participants estimate stimulus-outcome associations by learning and combining estimates of reward probabilities associated with the informative feature followed by those of informative conjunctions. Through analyzing representations, connectivity, and lesioning of the RNNs, we demonstrate this mixed learning strategy relies on a distributed neural code and opponency between excitatory and inhibitory neurons through value-dependent disinhibition. Together, our results suggest computational and neural mechanisms underlying emergence of complex learning strategies in naturalistic settings.
A major problem in motor control is understanding how the brain plans and executes proper movements in the face of delayed and noisy stimuli. A prominent framework for addressing such control problems is Optimal Feedback Control (OFC). OFC generates control actions that optimize behaviorally relevant criteria by integrating noisy sensory stimuli and the predictions of an internal model using the Kalman filter or its extensions. However, a satisfactory neural model of Kalman filtering and control is lacking because existing proposals have the following limitations: not considering the delay of sensory feedback, training in alternating phases, and requiring knowledge of the noise covariance matrices, as well as that of systems dynamics. Moreover, the majority of these studies considered Kalman filtering in isolation, and not jointly with control. To address these shortcomings, we introduce a novel online algorithm which combines adaptive Kalman filtering with a model free control approach (i.e., policy gradient algorithm). We implement this algorithm in a biologically plausible neural network with local synaptic plasticity rules. This network performs system identification and Kalman filtering, without the need for multiple phases with distinct update rules or the knowledge of the noise covariances. It can perform state estimation with delayed sensory feedback, with the help of an internal model. It learns the control policy without requiring any knowledge of the dynamics, thus avoiding the need for weight transport. In this way, our implementation of OFC solves the credit assignment problem needed to produce the appropriate sensory-motor control in the presence of stimulus delay.
In the field of Connectomics, a primary problem is that of 3D neuron segmentation. Although deep learning-based methods have achieved remarkable accuracy, errors still exist, especially in regions with image defects. One common type of defect is that of consecutive missing image sections. Here, data is lost along some axis, and the resulting neuron segmentations are split across the gap. To address this problem, we propose a novel method based on point cloud representations of neurons. We formulate the problem as a classification problem and train CurveNet, a state-of-the-art point cloud classification model, to identify which neurons should be merged. We show that our method not only performs strongly but also scales reasonably to gaps well beyond what other methods have attempted to address. Additionally, our point cloud representations are highly efficient in terms of data, maintaining high performance with an amount of data that would be unfeasible for other methods. We believe that this is an indicator of the viability of using point cloud representations for other proofreading tasks.
The brain effortlessly solves blind source separation (BSS) problems, but the algorithm it uses remains elusive. In signal processing, linear BSS problems are often solved by Independent Component Analysis (ICA). To serve as a model of a biological circuit, the ICA neural network (NN) must satisfy at least the following requirements: 1. The algorithm must operate in the online setting where data samples are streamed one at a time, and the NN computes the sources on the fly without storing any significant fraction of the data in memory. 2. The synaptic weight update is local, i.e., it depends only on the biophysical variables present in the vicinity of a synapse. Here, we propose a novel objective function for ICA from which we derive a biologically plausible NN, including both the neural architecture and the synaptic learning rules. Interestingly, our algorithm relies on modulating synaptic plasticity by the total activity of the output neurons. In the brain, this could be accomplished by neuromodulators, extracellular calcium, local field potential, or nitric oxide.
A Similarity-preserving Neural Network Trained on Transformed Images Recapitulates Salient Features of the Fly Motion Detection Circuit
Learning to detect content-independent transformations from data is one of the central problems in biological and artificial intelligence. An example of such problem is unsupervised learning of a visual motion detector from pairs of consecutive video frames. Rao and Ruderman formulated this problem in terms of learning infinitesimal transformation operators (Lie group generators) via minimizing image reconstruction error. Unfortunately, it is difficult to map their model onto a biologically plausible neural network (NN) with local learning rules. Here we propose a biologically plausible model of motion detection. We also adopt the transformation-operator approach but, instead of reconstruction-error minimization, start with a similarity-preserving objective function. An online algorithm that optimizes such an objective function naturally maps onto an NN with biologically plausible learning rules. The trained NN recapitulates major features of the well-studied motion detector in the fly. In particular, it is consistent with the experimental observation that local motion detectors combine information from at least three adjacent pixels, something that contradicts the celebrated Hassenstein-Reichardt model.
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image denoising are usually trained on large datasets. These models achieve the current state of the art, but they have difficulties generalizing when applied to data that deviate from the training distribution. Recent work has shown that it is possible to train denoisers on a single noisy image. These models adapt to the features of the test image, but their performance is limited by the small amount of information used to train them. Here we propose “GainTuning”, in which CNN models pre trained on large datasets are adaptively and selectively adjusted for individual test images. To avoid overfitting, GainTuning optimizes a single multiplicative scaling parameter (the “Gain”) of each channel in the convolutional layers of the CNN. We show that GainTuning improves state-of-the-art CNNs on standard image-denoising benchmarks, boosting their denoising performance on nearly every image in a held-out test set. These adaptive improvements are even more substantial for test images differing systematically from the training data, either in noise level or image type. We illustrate the potential of adaptive denoising in a scientific application, in which a CNN is trained on synthetic data, and tested on real transmission-electronmicroscope images. In contrast to the existing methodology, GainTuning is able to faithfully reconstruct the structure of catalytic nanoparticles from these data at extremely low signal-to-noise ratios.
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for video denoising are typically trained with supervision, assuming the availability of clean videos. However, in many applications, such as microscopy, noiseless videos are not available. To address this, we propose an Unsupervised Deep Video Denoiser (UDVD1), a CNN architecture designed to be trained exclusively with noisy data. The performance of UDVD is comparable to the supervised state-of-the-art, even when trained only on a single short noisy video. We demonstrate the promise of our approach in real-world imaging applications by denoising raw video, fluorescencemicroscopy and electron-microscopy data. In contrast to many current approaches to video denoising, UDVD does not require explicit motion compensation. This is advantageous because motion compensation is computationally expensive, and can be unreliable when the input data are noisy. A gradient-based analysis reveals that UDVD automatically adapts to local motion in the input noisy videos. Thus, the network learns to perform implicit motion compensation, even though it is only trained for denoising.
As the study of the human brain is complicated by its sheer scale, complexity, and impracticality of invasive experiments, neuroscience research has long relied on model organisms. The brains of macaque, mouse, zebrafish, fruit fly, nematode, and others have yielded many secrets that advanced our understanding of the human brain. Here, we propose that adding miniature insects to this collection would reduce the costs and accelerate brain research. The smallest insects occupy a special place among miniature animals: despite their body sizes, comparable to unicellular organisms, they retain complex brains that include thousands of neurons. Their brains possess the advantages of those in insects, such as neuronal identifiability and the connectome stereotypy, yet are smaller and hence easier to map and understand. Finally, the brains of miniature insects offer insights into the evolution of brain design.
Neurons in primate visual cortex (area V1) are tuned for spatial frequency, in a manner that depends on their position in the visual field. Several studies have examined this dependency using fMRI, reporting preferred spatial frequencies (tuning curve peaks) of V1 voxels as a function of eccentricity, but their results differ by as much as two octaves, presumably due to differences in stimuli, measurements, and analysis methodology. Here, we characterize spatial frequency tuning at a millimeter resolution within human primary visual cortex, across stimulus orientation and visual field locations. We measured fMRI responses to a novel set of stimuli, constructed as sinusoidal gratings in log-polar coordinates, which include circular, radial, and spiral geometries. For each individual stimulus, the local spatial frequency varies inversely with eccentricity, and for any given location in the visual field, the full set of stimuli span a broad range of spatial frequencies and orientations. Over the measured range of eccentricities, the preferred spatial frequency is well-fit by a function that varies as the inverse of the eccentricity plus a small constant. We also find small but systematic effects of local stimulus orientation, defined in both absolute coordinates and relative to visual field location. Specifically, peak spatial frequency is higher for tangential than radial orientations and for horizontal than vertical orientations.
The development of neuromorphic hardware and modeling of biological neural networks requires algorithms with local learning rules. Artificial neural networks using local learning rules to perform principal subspace analysis (PSA) and clustering have recently been derived from principled objective functions. However, no biologically plausible networks exist for minor subspace analysis (MSA), a fundamental signal processing task. MSA extracts the lowest-variance subspace of the input signal covariance matrix. Here, we introduce a novel similarity matching objective for extracting the minor subspace, Minor Subspace Similarity Matching (MSSM). Moreover, we derive an adaptive MSSM algorithm that naturally maps onto a novel neural network with local learning rules and gives numerical results showing that our method converges at a competitive rate.
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