1324 Publications

Approximating the Gaussian as a Sum of Exponentials and Its Applications to the Fast Gauss Transform

We develop efficient and accurate sum-of-exponential (SOE) approximations for the Gaussian using rational approximation of the exponential function on the negative real axis. Six digit accuracy can be obtained with eight terms and ten digit accuracy can be obtained with twelve terms. This representation is of potential interest in approximation theory but we focus here on its use in accelerating the fast Gauss transform (FGT) in one and two dimensions. The one-dimensional scheme is particularly straightforward and easy to implement, requiring only twenty-four lines of MATLAB code. The two-dimensional version requires some care with data structures, but is significantly more efficient than existing FGTs. Following a detailed presentation of the theoretical foundations, we demonstrate the performance of the fast transforms with several numerical experiments.

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Quantitative models for building and growing fated small cell networks

Small cell clusters exhibit numerous phenomena typically associated with complex systems, such as division of labour and programmed cell death. A conserved class of such clusters occurs during oogenesis in the form of germline cysts that give rise to oocytes. Germline cysts form through cell divisions with incomplete cytokinesis, leaving cells intimately connected through intercellular bridges that facilitate cyst generation, cell fate determination and collective growth dynamics. Using the well-characterized Drosophila melanogaster female germline cyst as a foundation, we present mathematical models rooted in the dynamics of cell cycle proteins and their interactions to explain the generation of germline cell lineage trees (CLTs) and highlight the diversity of observed CLT sizes and topologies across species. We analyse competing models of symmetry breaking in CLTs to rationalize the observed dynamics and robustness of oocyte fate specification, and highlight remaining gaps in knowledge. We also explore how CLT topology affects cell cycle dynamics and synchronization and highlight mechanisms of intercellular coupling that underlie the observed collective growth patterns during oogenesis. Throughout, we point to similarities across organisms that warrant further investigation and comment on the extent to which experimental and theoretical findings made in model systems extend to other species.

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Independently paced Ca2+ oscillations in progenitor and differentiated cells in an ex vivo epithelial organ

Ann A. Kim, Amanda Nguyen, X. Du, et al.

Cytosolic Ca2+ is a highly dynamic, tightly regulated and broadly conserved cellular signal. Ca2+ dynamics have been studied widely in cellular monocultures, yet organs in vivo comprise heterogeneous populations of stem and differentiated cells. Here, we examine Ca2+ dynamics in the adult Drosophila intestine, a self-renewing epithelial organ in which stem cells continuously produce daughters that differentiate into either enteroendocrine cells or enterocytes. Live imaging of whole organs ex vivo reveals that stem-cell daughters adopt strikingly distinct patterns of Ca2+ oscillations after differentiation: enteroendocrine cells exhibit single-cell Ca2+ oscillations, whereas enterocytes exhibit rhythmic, long-range Ca2+ waves. These multicellular waves do not propagate through immature progenitors (stem cells and enteroblasts), of which the oscillation frequency is approximately half that of enteroendocrine cells. Organ-scale inhibition of gap junctions eliminates Ca2+ oscillations in all cell types – even, intriguingly, in progenitor and enteroendocrine cells that are surrounded only by enterocytes. Our findings establish that cells adopt fate-specific modes of Ca2+ dynamics as they terminally differentiate and reveal that the oscillatory dynamics of different cell types in a single, coherent epithelium are paced independently.

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Active Microphase Separation in Mixtures of Microtubules and Tip-Accumulating Molecular Motors

Bezia Lemma , Noah P. Mitchell, D. Needleman, et al.

Mixtures of filaments and molecular motors form active materials with diverse dynamical behaviors that vary based on their constituents’ molecular properties. To develop a multiscale of these materials, we map the nonequilibrium phase diagram of microtubules and tip-accumulating kinesin-4 molecular motors. We find that kinesin-4 can drive either global contractions or turbulent like extensile dynamics, depending on the concentrations of both microtubules and a bundling agent. We also observe a range of spatially heterogeneous nonequilibrium phases, including finite-sized radial asters, 1D wormlike chains, extended 2D bilayers, and system-spanning 3D active foams. Finally, we describe intricate kinetic pathways that yield microphase-separated structures and arise from the inherent frustration between the orientational order of filamentous microtubules and the positional order of tip-accumulating molecular motors. Our work reveals a range of novel active states. It also shows that the form of active stresses is not solely dictated by the properties of individual motors and filaments, but is also contingent on the constituent concentrations and spatial arrangement of motors on the filaments.

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Stability selection enables robust learning of differential equations from limited noisy data

S. Maddu, Bevan L. Cheeseman , Ivo F. Sbalzarini, C. Müller

We present a statistical learning framework for robust identification of differential equations from noisy spatio-temporal data. We address two issues that have so far limited the application of such methods, namely their robustness against noise and the need for manual parameter tuning, by proposing stability-based model selection to determine the level of regularization required for reproducible inference. This avoids manual parameter tuning and improves robustness against noise in the data. Our stability selection approach, termed PDE-STRIDE, can be combined with any sparsity-promoting regression method and provides an interpretable criterion for model component importance. We show that the particular combination of stability selection with the iterative hard-thresholding algorithm from compressed sensing provides a fast and robust framework for equation inference that outperforms previous approaches with respect to accuracy, amount of data required, and robustness. We illustrate the performance of PDE-STRIDE on a range of simulated benchmark problems, and we demonstrate the applicability of PDE-STRIDE on real-world data by considering purely data-driven inference of the protein interaction network for embryonic polarization in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using fluorescence microscopy images of C. elegans zygotes as input data, PDE-STRIDE is able to learn the molecular interactions of the proteins.

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Simple lessons from complex learning: what a neural network model learns about cosmic structure formation

D. Jamieson, Y. Li, S. He, F. Villaescusa-Navarro, S. Ho, R. Alves de Oliveira, D. Spergel

We train a neural network model to predict the full phase space evolution of cosmological N-body simulations. Its success implies that the neural network model is accurately approximating the Green's function expansion that relates the initial conditions of the simulations to its outcome at later times in the deeply nonlinear regime. We test the accuracy of this approximation by assessing its performance on well understood simple cases that have either known exact solutions or well understood expansions. These scenarios include spherical configurations, isolated plane waves, and two interacting plane waves: initial conditions that are very different from the Gaussian random fields used for training. We find our model generalizes well to these well understood scenarios, demonstrating that the networks have inferred general physical principles and learned the nonlinear mode couplings from the complex, random Gaussian training data. These tests also provide a useful diagnostic for finding the model's strengths and weaknesses, and identifying strategies for model improvement. We also test the model on initial conditions that contain only transverse modes, a family of modes that differ not only in their phases but also in their evolution from the longitudinal growing modes used in the training set. When the network encounters these initial conditions that are orthogonal to the training set, the model fails completely. In addition to these simple configurations, we evaluate the model's predictions for the density, displacement, and momentum power spectra with standard initial conditions for N-body simulations. We compare these summary statistics against N-body results and an approximate, fast simulation method called COLA. Our model achieves percent level accuracy at nonlinear scales of $$k ∼ 1 Mpc −1 h,$$ representing a significant improvement over COLA.

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Field Level Neural Network Emulator for Cosmological N-body Simulations

D. Jamieson, Y. Li, R. Alves de Oliveira, F. Villaescusa-Navarro, S. Ho, D. Spergel

We build a field level emulator for cosmic structure formation that is accurate in the nonlinear regime. Our emulator consists of two convolutional neural networks trained to output the nonlinear displacements and velocities of N-body simulation particles based on their linear inputs. Cosmology dependence is encoded in the form of style parameters at each layer of the neural network, enabling the emulator to effectively interpolate the outcomes of structure formation between different flat ΛCDM cosmologies over a wide range of background matter densities. The neural network architecture makes the model differentiable by construction, providing a powerful tool for fast field level inference. We test the accuracy of our method by considering several summary statistics, including the density power spectrum with and without redshift space distortions, the displacement power spectrum, the momentum power spectrum, the density bispectrum, halo abundances, and halo profiles with and without redshift space distortions. We compare these statistics from our emulator with the full N-body results, the COLA method, and a fiducial neural network with no cosmological dependence. We find our emulator gives accurate results down to scales of $$k ∼ 1 Mpc −1 h,$$ representing a considerable improvement over both COLA and the fiducial neural network. We also demonstrate that our emulator generalizes well to initial conditions containing primordial non-Gaussianity, without the need for any additional style parameters or retraining.

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Towards the cellular-scale simulation of motor-driven cytoskeletal assemblies

W. Yan, Saad Ansari, A. Lamson, Matthew A. Glaser, Meredith Betterton, M. Shelley

The cytoskeleton -- a collection of polymeric filaments, molecular motors, and crosslinkers -- is a foundational example of active matter, and in the cell assembles into organelles that guide basic biological functions. Simulation of cytoskeletal assemblies is an important tool for modeling cellular processes and understanding their surprising material properties. Here we present aLENS, a novel computational framework to surmount the limits of conventional simulation methods. We model molecular motors with crosslinking kinetics that adhere to a thermodynamic energy landscape, and integrate the system dynamics while efficiently and stably enforcing hard-body repulsion between filaments -- molecular potentials are entirely avoided in imposing steric constraints. Utilizing parallel computing, we simulate different mixtures of tens to hundreds of thousands of cytoskeletal filaments and crosslinking motors, recapitulating self-emergent phenomena such as bundle formation and buckling, and elucidating how motor type, thermal fluctuations, internal stresses, and confinement determine the evolution of active matter aggregates.

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May 26, 2022

Charting Galactic Accelerations with Stellar Streams and Machine Learning

J. Nibauer, V. Belokurov, M. Cranmer, J. Goodman, S. Ho

We present a data-driven method for reconstructing the galactic acceleration field from phase-space measurements of stellar streams. Our approach is based on a flexible and differentiable fit to the stream in phase-space, enabling a direct estimate of the acceleration vector along the stream. Reconstruction of the local acceleration field can be applied independently to each of several streams, allowing us to sample the acceleration field due to the underlying galactic potential across a range of scales. Our approach is methodologically different from previous works, since a model for the gravitational potential does not need to be adopted beforehand. Instead, our flexible neural-network-based model treats the stream as a collection of orbits with a locally similar mixture of energies, rather than assuming that the stream delineates a single stellar orbit. Accordingly, our approach allows for distinct regions of the stream to have different mean energies, as is the case for real stellar streams. Once the acceleration vector is sampled along the stream, standard analytic models for the galactic potential can then be rapidly constrained. We find our method recovers the correct parameters for a ground-truth triaxial logarithmic halo potential when applied to simulated stellar streams. Alternatively, we demonstrate that a flexible potential can be constrained with a neural network, though standard multipole expansions can also be constrained. Our approach is applicable to simple and complicated gravitational potentials alike, and enables potential reconstruction from a fully data-driven standpoint using measurements of slowly phase-mixing tidal debris.

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